The team describes the effect of perfused fluid flow for generating osteogenic grafts

In this work, we investigated whether osteoinductive constructs can be generated by isolation and expansion of sheep bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) directly within three-dimensional (3D) ceramic scaffolds, bypassing the typical phase of monolayer (2D) expansion prior to scaffold loading. Nucleated cells from sheep bone marrow aspirate were seeded into 3D ceramic scaffolds either by static loading or under perfusion flow and maintained in culture for up to 14 days. The resulting constructs were exposed to enzymatic treatment to assess the number and lineage of extracted cells, or implanted subcutaneously in nude mice to test their capacity to induce bone formation. As a control, BMSC expanded in monolayer for 14 days were also seeded into the scaffolds and implanted. BMSC could be isolated and expanded directly in the 3D ceramic scaffolds, although they proliferated slower than in 2D. Upon ectopic implantation, the resulting constructs formed a higher amount of bone tissue than constructs loaded with the same number of 2D-expanded cells. Constructs cultivated for 14 days generated significantly more bone tissue than those cultured for 3 days. No differences in bone formation were found between samples seeded by static loading or under perfusion. In conclusion, the culture of bone marrow nucleated cells directly on 3D ceramic scaffolds represents a promising approach to expand BMSC and streamline the engineering of osteoinductive grafts.

S. Scaglione, A. Braccini, D. Wendt, C. Jaquiery, F. Beltrame, R. Quarto, I. Martin (2005): “Engineering of osteoinductive grafts by isolation and expansion of ovine bone marrow stromal cells directly on 3D ceramic scaffolds”. Biotechnology Bioengineering